prof. dr hab. n. med. Małgorzata Pihut
Key words: bruxism, treatment, botulinum toxin, polysomnographic study
Currently, bruxism is considered as masticatory muscle activity during sleep and daytime and is divided – depending on the diagnostic methods used – into probable, definite sleep bruxism and awake bruxism.
Among adults, bruxism occurs in approximately 16% of the population (it is twice as common in smokers and alcohol or drug abusers).
The aetiology of bruxism is complex and multifactorial.
In order to confirm the diagnosis of bruxism, a polysomnographic and/or electromyographic examination is currently performed (in addition to clinical tests).
Effective treatment of bruxism and its sequelae requires action on many levels, and
includes: treatment with occlusal appliance, the use of relaxing farmacological agents (including botulinum toxin in intramuscular injections), as well as physiotherapy treatments and psychological support.