prof. dr hab. n. med. Ewa Stachowska
Key words: gut microbiome, probiotics, prebiotics, psychobiotic bacteria, depression, polyphenols
Gut microbiome contains over 1,500 microorganisms that perform many functions, incl. they can activate or inactivate signals sent to the brain. Among the probiotic bacteria, psychobiotic bacteria producing neuroactive substances have been isolated. Diverse and rich microbiome ensures good communication with the immune system, it means the state of eubiosis and the health of the organism.
The composition of the microbiome may be adversely affected by such factors as infection, the use of certain medications, and improper nutrition. The state of dysbiosis leads to an increase in the leaky gut syndrome and has a negative effect on the functioning of the nervous system. The diet modifies the gut microbiome gently and systematically; it should be diverse and multi-component. The key nutrients with antiinflammatory properties and a strong influence on cognitive functions and mental state are: omega-3 fatty acids, proteins, some vitamins, micro- and macroelements, and polyphenols (especially cocoa flavones, resveratrol, anthocyanins, curcumin, rutin, quercitin).
Active ingredients absorbed in food, as well as probiotics (psychobiotics) and prebiotics affect the secretion of enzymes and hormones regulating the work of the brain, and mental states (including depression).