lek. Małgorzata Orylska-Ratyńska, lek. Katarzyna Jóźwicka, prof. dr hab. n. med. Waldemar Placek
Key words: botulinum toxin, registered indications, anatomy, injections, safety of the procedure
In clinical practice, of the eight botulinum toxin serotypes, only types A and B are used. They all interfere with nerve transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic gap at the neuromuscular junction. Inhibition of nerve impulse transmission consequently leads to paralysis of the muscle. In 1989, botulinum toxin type A was approved by the FDA for therapeutic use in humans, initially for the treatment of strabismus, eyelid spasm, muscle spasticity and contractures. Since then, research into BoNT-A use has continued and the range of therapeutic indications has expanded. Currently, the drug is used in ophthalmology, neurology, dermatology and aesthetic procedures. Treatments with BoNT-A are characterized by high efficacy and a relatively safe complication profile. Safety is determined by full knowledge of the facial muscle anatomy and the action of the preparation used, proper qualification of the patient and the correct way of performing the procedure.